Microbiota, Enteroendocrine Cells and Weight Loss in Cats
- Chen Gilor, DVM, PhD, DACVIM
- University of California at Davis
- There is growing data to suggest that intestinal microbiota are involved in a wide variety of autoimmune and metabolic diseases throughout the body (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, obesity, and diabetes).
- The microbiome of obese cats is different from that of lean cats, and the shift in bacteria may result in changes in the efficiency of energy extraction from the diet as well as altered metabolic regulation that may perpetuate a cycle of weight gain.
- The enteroendocrine cells (EEC) are cells in the intestinal mucosa that serve as first-line sensors of the quality and quantity of dietary nutrients in the digestive system. By nature of their physical location and capacity to integrate a variety of inputs and send a variety of messages, EEC are the mediators between the gut microbiota and the host.
- In cats, the capacity of the EEC to secrete glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) increases with weight loss and high-fiber, high-carbohydrate diets, which subsequently makes it more difficult to maintain a lean body condition because of increased insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue.
- In the future, therapies that inhibit this GIP response could be used in weight management for our pets.