Early Development

1. Heinemann, K.M., Waldron, M.K., Bigley, K.E., Lees, G.E., & Bauer, J.E. (2005). Long-chain (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are more efficient than α-linoleic acid in improving electroretinogram responses of puppies exposed during gestation, lactation and weaning. Journal of Nutrition, 135, 1960—1966.

2. Reynolds, A.J., Waldron, M., Wilsson, E., Leavitt, Y., Dunlap, A., & Bailey, K. (2006). Effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on mental stability, problem-solving ability, and learned pattern retention in young, growing dogs. Proceedings Nestlé Purina Nutrition Forum, p. 74.

Aging Brain

1. Studzinski, C.M., Christie, L.A., Araujo, J.A., Burnham, W.M., Head, E., Cotman, C.W., & Milgram, N.W. (2006). Visuospatial function in the beagle dog: An early marker of cognitive decline in a model of human aging and dementia. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 86, 197—204.

2. Landsberg, G.M., Nichol, J., & Araujo, J.A. (2012). Cognitive dysfunction syndrome: A disease of canine and feline brain aging. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice, 42, 749—768. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2012.04.003

3. London, E.D., Ohata, M., Takei, H., French, A.W., & Rapoport, S.I. (1983). Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in beagle dogs of different ages. Neurobiology of Aging, 4, 121—126.

4. Schütt, T., Toft, N., & Berendt, M. (2015). Cognitive function, progression of age-related behavioral changes, biomarkers, and survival in dogs more than 8 years old. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 201, 1569—1577. doi: 10.1111/jvim.13633

5. Cory, J. (2013). Identification and management of cognitive decline in companion animals and the comparisons with Alzheimer disease: A reviewJournal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 8, 291—301.

6. Nugent, S., Tremblay, S., Chen, K.W., Ayutyanont, N., Roontiva, A., Castellano, C.A., & Cunnane, S.C. (2014).Brain glucose and acetoacetate metabolism: A comparison of young and older adults. Neurobiology of Aging, 35, 1386—1395. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.11.027 

7. Pan, Y., Larson, B., Araujo, J.A., Lau, W., de Rivera, C., Santana, R., Gore, A., & Milgram, N.W. (2010). Dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG has long-lasting cognition-enhancing effects in aged dogs. British Journal of Nutrition, 103, 1746—1754. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510000097

8. Pan, Y., Kennedy, A.D., Jonsson, T.J., & Milgram, N.W. (2018). Cognitive enhancement in old dogs from dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend containing arginine, antioxidants, B vitamins and fish oil. British Journal of Nutrition, 119, 349—358. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517003464

9. Pan, Y., Araujo, J.A., Burrows, J., de Rivera, C., Gore, A., Bhatnagar, S., & Milgram, N.W. (2013). Cognitive enhancement in middle-aged and old cats with dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend containing fish oil, B vitamins, antioxidants and arginine. British Journal of Nutrition, 110, 40—49. doi:


Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome

1. Salvin, H.E., McGreevy, P.D., Sachdev, P.S., & Valenzuela, M.J. (2010). Under diagnosis of canine cognitive dysfunction: A cross-sectional survey of older companion dogsVeterinary Journal, 184, 277-281.

2. Pan, Y., Larson, B., Araujo, J.A., Lau, W., de Rivera, C., Santana, R., Gore, A, & Milgram, N.W. (2010). Dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG has long-lasting cognition-enhancing effects in aged dogsBritish Journal of Nutrition, 103, 1746—1754. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510000097

3. Pan, Y., Landsberg, G., Mougeot, I., Kelly, S., Xu, H., Bhatnagar, S., & N.W. (2017). Efficacy of a therapeutic diet in dogs with signs of cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS): A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study. Abstract N10: 2017 American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) forum. Available at:


1. Law, T.H., Davies, E.S., Pan, Y., Zanghi, B., Want, E., & Volk, H.A. (2016). A randomised trial of a medium-chain TAG diet as treatment for dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. British Journal of Nutrition, 114, 1438—1447. Erratum in: British Journal of Nutrition, 2016; 115:1696.

2. Packer, R.M.A., Volk, H.A., & Fowkes, R.C. (2017). Physiological reactivity to spontaneously occurring seizure activity in dogs with epilepsy and their carers. Physiology & Behavior, 177, 27—33. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.04.008      

3. Chang, Y., Mellor, D.J., & Anderson, T.J. (2006). Idiopathic epilepsy in dogs: Owners’ perspectives on management with phenobarbitone and/or potassium bromide. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 47, 574—581.

4. Packer, R.M.A., McGreevy, P.D., Pergande, A., & Volk, H.A. (2018). Negative effects of epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs on the trainability of dogs with naturally occurring idiopathic epilepsy. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 200, 106—113. doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2017.11.008     

5. Packer, R.M.A., McGreevy, P.D., Salvin, H.E., Valenzuela, M.J., Chaplin, C.M., & Volk, H.A. (2018). Cognitive dysfunction in naturally occurring canine idiopathic epilepsy. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192182

6. Winter, J., Packer, R.M.A., & Volk, H.A. (2018c). Preliminary assessment of cognitive impairments in canine idiopathic epilepsy. Veterinary Record. 182(22), 663. doi: 10.1136/vr.104603

7. Kim, D.Y., Simeone, K.A., Simeone, T.A., Pandya, J.D., Wilke, J.C., Ahn, Y., Geddes, J.W., Sullivan, P.G., & Rho, J.M. (2015). Ketone bodies mediate antiseizure effects through mitochondrial permeability transition. Annals of Neurology 78, 77—87. doi: 10.1002/ana.24424

8. Masino, S.A., Li, T., Theofilas, P., Sandau, U.S., Ruskin, D.N., Fredholm, B.B., Geiger, J.D., Aronica, E., & Boison, D. (2011). A ketogenic diet suppresses seizures in mice through adenosine A₁ receptors. Journal of Clinical Investigation 121, 2679—2683. doi: 10.1172/JCI57813

9. Wlaź, P., Socała, K., Nieoczym, D., Łuszczki, J.J., Zarnowska, I., Zarnowski, T., Czuczwar, S.J., & Gasior, M. (2012). Anticonvulsant profile of caprylic acid, a main constituent of the medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet, in mice. Neuropharmacology 62, 1882—1889. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011

10. Neal, E.G., Chaffe, H., Schwartz, R.H., Lawson, M.S., Edwards, N., Fitzsimmons, G., & Cross, J.H. (2009). A randomized trial of classical and medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diets in the treatment of childhood epilepsy. Epilepsia 50, 1109—1117. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01870.x

11. Packer, R.M.A., Law, T.H., Davies, E., Zanghi, B., Pan, Y., & Volk, H.A. (2016). Effects of a ketogenic diet on ADHD-like behavior in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 55, 62—68. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.11.014