Gut-Brain Axis

  1. Shen, H. H. (2015). Microbes on the Mind. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(30), 9143–9145. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1509590112  
  2. Dinan, T. G., & Cryan, J. F. (2017). Gut-brain axis in 2016: Brain-gut-microbiota axis - mood, metabolism and behaviour. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 14(2), 69–70. doi: 10.1038/nrgastro.2016.200 
  3. Köhler, C.  A., Maes, M., Slyepchenko, A., Berk, M., Solmi, M., Lanctot, K. L., & Carvalho, A. F. (2016). The gut-brain axis, including the microbiome, leaky gut and bacterial translocation: Mechanisms and pathophysiological role in Alzheimer's disease. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 22(40), 1–15. doi: 10.2174/1381612822666160907093807 
  4. McGowan, R. T. S., Barnett, H. R., Czarnecki-Maulden, G. L., Si, X., Perez-Camargo, G., & Martin, F. (2018, July). Tapping into those ‘gut feelings’: Impact of BL999 (Bifidobacterium longum) on anxiety in dogs. Veterinary Behavior Symposium Proceedings, Denver, CO, pp. 8–9.
  5. Beata, C., Beaumont-Graff, E., Diaz, C. Marion, M., Massal, N., Marlois, N., Muller, G., & Lefranc, C. (2007). Effects of alpha-casozepine (Zylkene) versus selegiline hydrochloride (Selgian, Anipryl) on anxiety disorders in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 2, 175–183.
  6. Stelow, E. (2018). Diagnosing behavior problems: A guide for practitioners. Veterinary Clinics of North America, 48(3), 339–350. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2017.12.003
  7. Ballantyne, K. C. (2018). Separation, confinement, or noises: what is scaring that dog? Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 48(3), 367–386. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2017.12.005
  8. Salman, M. D., Hutchison, J., Ruch-Gallie, R., Kogan, L., New, J. C., Kass, P. H., & Scarlett, J. M. (2000). Behavioral reasons for relinquishment of shelter dogs and cats to 12 shelters. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 3(2), 93–106.
  9. Tanaka, A., Wagner, D. C., Kass, P. H., & Hurley, K. F. (2012). Associations among weight loss, stress, and upper respiratory tract infection in shelter cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 240(5), 570–576. doi: 10.2460/javma.240.5.570
  10. Landsberg, G., Hunthausen, W., & Ackerman, L. (2013). Behavior Problems of the Dog & Cat. Great Britain: Saunders Elsevier. pp. 181–182.
  11. Mills, D., Karagiannis, C., & Zulch, H. (2014). Stress – Its effects on health and behavior: A guide for practitioners. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice,  44, 525–541.
  12. Mariti, C., Gazzano, A., Moore, J. L., Baragli, P., Chelli, L., & Sighieri, C. (2012). Perception of dogs’ stress by their owners. Journal of Veterinary Behavior, 7(4), 213–219.
  13. Seibert, L. M., & Landsberg, G. M. (2008). Diagnosis and management of patients presenting with behavior problems. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 38, 937–950.
  14. Patronek, G. J., & Dodman, N. H. (1999). Attitudes, procedures, and delivery of behavior services by veterinarians in small animal practice. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 215(11), 1606–1611.


  1. Sender, R., Fuchs, S., & Milo, R. (2016). Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body. PLoS Biology, 14(8):e1002533. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002533
  2. Sanders, M. E. (2008). Probiotics: Definition, sources, selection, and uses. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46 (Suppl 2), S58–61. doi: 10.1086/52334.
  3. Guard, B. C., Mila, H., Steiner, J. M., Mariani, C., Suchodolski, J. S., & Chastant-Maillard, S. (2017). Characterization of the fecal microbiome during neonatal and early pediatric development in puppies. PLoS ONE12(4), e0175718.
  4. Romano-Keeler, J., & Weitkamp, J. H. (2015). Maternal influences on fetal microbial colonization and immune development. Pediatric Research, 77(1-2), 189–95. doi: 10.1038/pr.2014.163
  5. Young, W., Moon, C. D., Thomas, D. G., Cave, N. J., & Bermingham, E. N. (2016). Pre- and post-weaning diet alters the faecal metagenome in the cat with differences in vitamin and carbohydrate metabolism gene abundances. Scientific Reports6, 34668.
  6. World Health Organization (WHO) & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States (FAO). (2006). Probiotics in food: Health and nutritional properties and guidelines for evaluation. (ISSN 0254-4725)
  7. Benyacoub. J., Czarnecki-Maulden, G. L., Cavadini, C., Sauthier, T., Anderson, R. E., Schiffrin, E. J., & von der Weid, T. (2003). Supplementation of food with Enterococcus faecium (SF68) stimulates immune functions in young dogs. Journal of Nutrition, 133(4), 1158–1162.
  8. Bybee, S. N., Scorza, A. V., & Lappin, M. R. (2011). Effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium SF68 on presence of diarrhea in cats and dogs housed in an animal shelter. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 25(4), 856–60. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.0738.x
  9. Fenimore, A., Martin, L., & Lappin, M. R. (2017). Evaluation of metronidazole with and without Enterococcus faecium SF68 in shelter dogs with diarrhea. Topics in Companion Animal Medicine, 32(3), 100–103. doi: 10.1053/j.tcam.2017.11.001
  10. Lappin, M. R., Veir, J. K., Satyaraj, E., & Czarnecki-Maulden, G. L. (2009). Pilot study to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation of Enterococcus faecium SF68 on cats with latent feline herpesvirus 1. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 11:650–654.
  11. Simpson, K. W., Rishniw, M., Bellosa, M., Liotta, J., Lucio, A., Baumgart, M., & Bowman, D. (2009). Influence of Enterococcus faecium SF68 probiotic on giardiasis in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine,  23(3):476–481. doi: 10.1111/j.1939–1676.2009.0283.x
  12. Torres-Henderson, C., Summers, S., Suchodolski, J., & Lappin, M. R. (2017). Effect of Enterococcus faecium strain SF68 on gastrointestinal signs and fecal microbiome in cats administered amoxicillin-clavulanate. Topics in Companion Animal Medicine, 32(3), 104–108. doi: 10.1053/j.tcam.2017.11.002
  13. Veir, J. K., Knorr, R., Cavadini, C., Sherrill, S. J., Benyacoub, J., Satyaraj, E., & Lappin, M. R. (2007). Effect of supplementation with Enterococcus faecium (SF68) on immune functions in cats. Veterinary Therapeutics, 8(4), 229–238.
  14. Waldron, M., Kerr, W., Czarnecki-Maulden, G. L., & Davis, J. (2012). Supplementation with Enterococcus faecium SF68 Reduces Flatulence in Dogs. Presented at the International Scientific Congress of the European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition, Bydgoszcz, Poland


  1. Valcheva, R., & Dieleman, L. A. (2016). Prebiotics: Definition and protective mechanisms. Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, 30, 27–37.
  2. Roberfroid, M. (2007). Prebiotics: The concept revisited. Journal of Nutrition, 173(3) Suppl. 2, 830S–837S.
  3. Pinna, C., & Biagi, G. (2014). The utilization of prebiotics and synbiotics in dogs.  Italian Journal of Animal Science, 13, 169–178.
  4. Hesta, M., Janssens, G. P., Debraekeleer, J., & De Wilde, R. (2001). The effect of oligofructose and inulin on faecal characteristics and nutrient digestibility in healthy cats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (Berl), 85, 135–141.
  5. Younes, H., Garleb, K., Behr, S., Rémésy, C., & Demigné, C. (1995). Fermentable fibers or oligosaccharides reduce urinary nitrogen excretion by increasing urea disposal in the rat cecum. Journal of Nutrition, 125, 1010–1016.
  6. Buddington, R. K., & Sunvold, G. D.  (1998). Fermentable fiber and the gastrointestinal tract ecosystem. Recent Advances in Canine and Feline Nutrition: 1998 Iams Nutrition Symposium Proceedings, pp. 449–461.
  7. National Research Council (2006). Energy. In: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. pp. 28–48. Washington DC: National Academies Press.
  8. Knudsen, K., Serena, A., Canibe, N., & Juntunen, K. (2003). New insights into butyrate metabolism. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62, 81–86.
  9. Patil, A. R., Czarnecki-Maulden, G., & Dowling, K. E. (2000). Effect of advances in age on fecal microflora of cats. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal, 14(4), A488.
  10. Patil, A. R., Carrion, P. A., & Holmes, A. K. (2001). Effect of chicory supplementation on fecal microflora of cats. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal, 15(4), A288.
  11. Czarnecki-Maulden, G. L. (2001). Microflora and fiber in the GI tract: Helping the good guys. Veterinary Forum, 18(9), 43–45.
  12. Czarnecki-Maulden, G. (2000). The use of prebiotics in prepared pet food. Veterinary International, 2(1), 19–23.
  13. Czarnecki-Maulden, G. L., & Russell, T. J. (2000a). Effect of chicory on fecal microflora in dogs fed soy-containing or soy-free diets. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal, 14(4), A488.
  14. Czarnecki-Maulden, G. L., & Russell, T. J. (2000b). Effect of diet type on fecal microflora in dogs. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal, 14(4), A488.
  15. Cupp, C. J., Kerr, W. W., Jean-Phillipe, C., Patil, A. R., & Perez-Camargo, G. (2008). The role of nutritional interventions in the longevity and maintenance of long-term health in aging cats. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, 6, 69–81.

Non-Replicating Microorganisms (NRMs)

  1. Kataria, J., Li, N., Wynn, J. L., & Neu, J. (2009). Probiotic microbes: do they need to be alive to be beneficial? Nutrition Reviews, 67(9), 546–550. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00226.x 

Immunity and Colostrum

  1. Vighi, G., Marcucci, F., Sensi, L., Di Cara, G., & Frati, F. (2008). Allergy and the gastrointestinal system. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 153(S1), 3–6. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03713.x
  2. Jean-Philippe, C. Beneficial effects of dietary colostrum supplementation in kittens, Nestlé Purina Scientific Update of Feline Nutrition, Issue 4, 1–8.
  3. Satyaraj, E., Reynolds, A., Pelker, R., Labuda, J., Zhang, P., & Sun, P. (2013). Supplementation of diets with bovine colostrum influences immune function in dogs. British Journal of Nutrition, 110(12), 2216–2221. doi: 10.1017/S000711451300175X